Data Scientist: Why am I not receiving a bonus this year? I am constantly coming up with new ideas, putting my heart into it.
Manager: It is all based on results. This year your research has not produced outstanding results.
Data Scientist: Research is inherently random. It may produce something outstanding once in five years.
Manager: Then you will get a bonus for that one year, out of five.
Data Scientist: Why is then Jessica getting a bonus?
Manager: Jessica is leading a team of 10 data scientists.
Data Scientist: Has she produced outstanding research?
Manager: Her team is consistently producing outstanding results, year after year.
Data Scientist: If every data scientist has a 20% chance of producing outstanding results in a given year, at least one person on Jessica’s team will do it with 89% probability.Manager: You don’t understand. Jessica is constantly coming up with new ideas to make her team better. She is putting her heart into it.